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Penox Group / Penox GmbH

  • PENOX Group, initially founded in 1994 as Penarroya Oxide Group, is one of the world’s largest producers of leady oxides, with production sites in Germany, Spain, Mexico and Korea.
  • Since 2017 all production sites are operating under the roof of PENOX Group GmbH with the global headquarter located in Eschborn, Germany.
  • PENOX, as partner of the lead acid battery industry, is offering functional additives for the positive and negative active material in addition to leady oxides.
  • PENOX history:

PENOX – In the AddESun Project

  • The “AddESun” Project is investigating new potential additives for industrial lead-acid batteries.
  • PENOX as one of the industrial partners is responsible for the testing of innovative materials for lead-acid battery technology using their new     R&D center in Thuringia that was set-up in 2017 to drive material innovation for the industry.
  • PENOX research activities are focussing on a better understanding of the correlation between electrode structure and electrical performance.
  • Among other materials TBLS+® is investigated and allows to control the growth of tetrabasic crystals and thus to tune the porosity of the positive active mass (PAM).
  • Within the first year of the “AddESun” project over 30 paste mixes had been investigated. The electrodes are provided to the partner Fraunhofer ISC for further electrical testing.
  • Presently, a Demonstrator with optimised positive electrodes using new additive materials is build by the partner EXIDE Technologies.

PENOX – Pre-Screening of PAM Additives

Pre-screening is done to check the impact of new additive substances

  • Positive Actives Mass (PAM) mixed in an Eirich R01
  • Pasting of 20 to 30 small plates by hand
  • Curing of plates with defined curing profile
  • Characterisation of cured plates: Water porosity, Hg porosity, free lead content, 4BS content, REM and XRD

PENOX – Influence of Tetrabasic (4BS) Seeding Material

Effects on cured positive plates:

  • At temperature higher 65°C tetrabasic lead sulphate (4BS) crystals are formed during curing process
  • Without seeding crystals, the active mass is forming large crystals – disadvantage on surface area and capacity
  • TBLS+® (4BS dispersion) allows to control the average size of the crystals in cured plates


PENOX Presentation on the Asian Battery Conference 2019 in Bali, Indonesia
„Systematic Screening for new Additives in Lead-Acid Battery Technology – Role of Porosity and Electrode Surface Area”, Dr. Rainer Bußar et al.



Dr. Rainer Bußar

Gothaer Str. 39
99885 Ohrdruf